TYPOLOGY OF THE WORD-GROUP IN ENGLISH AND UKRAINIAN
THE WORD-GROUP (I)
The word-group in both languages consists of two or more grammatically connected notional parts of speech expressing some content. Word-groups in English and Ukrainian may be free or idiomatically bound.
THE WORD-GROUP (II)
The elements of notional word-groups can be joined either syndetically by means of prepositions or conjunctions (books for reading, читати по черзі) or asyndetically by means of intonation (easy-reading books, писати швидко). English has a greater asyndetic potential if compared with Ukrainian because of its analytical character.
syntagmatic groupings of notional words alone (interesting book, цікава книга),
syntagmatic groupings of notional words with functional words (to get rid of sth, зважати на щось),
syntagmatic groupings of functional words alone (up to, тому що).
The links between the elements of a word-group
predicative, uniting the subject and the predicate. Such word-groups (I go,Ми читаємо) build up the basis of a sentence;
we observe objective connections in see a book, малювати картину;
attributive connection unites a substance with its attribute expressed by an adjective or a noun (a puny creature, цікава новина);
adverbial connection is subdivided into primary and secondary.
The primary adverbial connection is established between the verb and its adverbial modifiers of various standings (to talk seriously, to get with happiness, говорити голосно, йти з радістю).
THE STRUCTURAL FORMS OF WORD-GROUPS (I)
simple, or elemental word-groups which consist of two components connected with the help of one grammatical means (synthetic or analytical): this book, to see her, cotton shirt; ці книжки, гарно читати, зайти у фойє.
THE STRUCTURAL FORMS OF WORD-GROUPS (II)
The elements of the first class are joined either syndetically (pens and pencils, газети та журнали) or asyndetically (read, translate, learn;їсти, пити, спати). They are treated open.
SUBORDINATE WORD-GROUPS (I)
They consist of a head component, which is the nucleus of a word-group, and one of more adjuncts \ complements \ subordinate elements and are treated closed (small children, to love her, very nice, we all, two of the guys, well enough, afraid to answer,гра акторів, вартий нагороди, дехто з учнів, мало часу, дуже весело, легко на душі).
SUBORDINATE WORD-GROUPS (II)
TYPOLOGY OF THE SENTENCE IN ENGLISH AND UKRAINIAN
Any coherent connection of words according to a definite syntactic pattern with some communicative purpose related to reality is considered to be a sentence. It is the main communicative language unit.
FEATURES OF THE SENTENCE (I)
FEATURES OF THE SENTENCE (II)
The sentence is aimed at rendering some information. Such information exchange proves the role of communication as one of sentence indicators.
Predication establishes a certain grammatical combination of words. Sentence semantics presents the unity of nominative and predicative aspects.
Modality is the ground for expressing the speaker’s attitude towards the content of an utterance.
According to the aim of communication sentences fall into:
They split into affirmative and negative statements of real, wishful and conditional modality (The door opened. He made no remark. Раптом вона заплакала. Він не заперечував цього). If negation stands in front of the predicate it bears the general meaning of negation (She doesn’t want to leave. Він не прийшов на зустріч). Though certain elements of a sentence may be negated as well (She studies not at the University. Він навчається не в Києві). Mind that English has no double negation: She never admitted her mistakes. Вона ніколи не визнавала своїх помилок.
Interrogative sentences (I)
They possess a common communicative function and the corresponding kinds: general questions in English start with an auxiliary, modal or linking verb followed by the subject, whereas in Ukrainian – with any part of the sentence (Did you do that? Ти це зробив?). Structural identity is observed in disjunctive\tag-questions consisting of an affirmative or negative statement followed respectively by a negative and affirmative question-tag (She is fond of music, isn’t she? Ти боїшся, чи не так?).
Interrogative sentences (II)
Alternative questions are characterized in both languages by isomorphic features. The beginning of these sentences presents a general question (Is it a pen or a pencil? Ви любите кіно або театр?). Special questions are opened with an interrogative pronoun or adverb, which may be proceeded by prepositions, particles or interjections (What did you do yesterday? Що вона зробила?).
Interrogative sentences (III)
Allomorphic is the use of prepositions in the final position in English (What do you depend upon?). Rhetorical questions have a modal meaning, which does not contain any new information for a speaker. So they need no answers (Who should I blame? Невже ти цього не чув?).
They express demands, orders, commands, requests, warnings, prohibition, persuasion, etc. (Go to the classroom! Говори правду!).
They express exclamation (How wonderful it was! Як гарно!).
STRUCTURAL TYPES OF SENTENCES
ONE-MEMBER SENTENCES IN BOTH LANGUAGES
nominative (Night. Measure for Measure. Темнота та тиша. Чудовий сон!);
inducive (Go right now! Проходьте!);
exclamatory (Great! Як гарно!);
infinitival (To be or not to be? Що робити?);
elliptical (Taking risks? Подумав?).
ONE-MEMBER SENTENCES IN UKRAINIAN (I)
indefinite personal, where the doer of an action is not identified (Нам подали на стіл обід). In English the predicate in the sentences conveying the same idea is expressed in the Passive Voice form (We were served coffee);
generalized personal, where any person may be the doer of the action (Хліб сіль їж, а правду ріж. Працювали весь день). In the English equivalent sentences the subject may be expressed by one, we, you (One can enjoy the show. You can’t be happy about it);
ONE-MEMBER SENTENCES IN UKRAINIAN (II)
impersonal, where the doer of an action can’t be reconstructed (Завечоріло. Прохолодно. Мені боляче. На столі олівці). In the corresponding English sentences most often we use the formal subject It / There, or change the structure of the sentence (Twilight set in. It is getting cold. It gives me much pain. There are pencils on the table).
TWO-MEMBER SENTENCES (I)
TWO-MEMBER SENTENCES (II)
It has only one predicative link between the subject and the predicate (She is in the garden. Він сьогодні не пішов у гості).
If the links between clauses are coordinate, we deal with a compound sentence. Clauses may be joined by means of copulative and adversative conjunctions, or asyndetically in both languages (Вона не хотіла йти на концерт, але ми її умовили.He was very excited and his friends were excited as well). In English the causal conjunction for unites coordinate clauses (She came in time for we used to ask her about it not once).
COMPLEX SENTENCES (I)
If one of the clauses in a composite sentence governs another one, they are linked subordinately. Such a sentence is called complex. Depending upon the function of a subordinate clause in the whole sentence, clauses fall into:
subject (What was important for him was absolutely necessary for us. Хто чесно бореться, (той) завжди перемагає);
predicative (She was as if frightened to death. Вона не така, щоб нічого не робити по дому);
COMPLEX SENTENCES (II)
object (He knew that she was faithful to him. Я хотів, щоб у мене було більше вільного часу);
attributive (The house, which was built not far from the town, was quite big. Оце та станція, на якій я зійшов минулого разу);
of place (He is happy to be at home where he can find his true friends. Вони пішли туди, де ми їх не чекали),
of time (When you are free, I am always busy. Я чекав на них, доки не пішов дощ),
COMPLEX SENTENCES (III)
manner (She cried as she was asked. Вітер замутив воду, аж осока зашуміла),
comparison (He looked as if he had been caught in a trap. Вона виглядає так, начебто вона отримала двійку),
condition (If you ask me, I’ll tell you all about this case. Якби все було добре, вона не поїхала б додому),
concession (She was happy, though we all knew her fault. Хоча вона й була сердитою, ми добре провели час),